Menu reference list

Symbols

Here you'll find the standard mathematical symbols.

  • These buttons are for the nice-looking versions of the symbols. Sometimes you can write directly with the keyboard; it won't be charming, but it will work. For example, you can use the keyboard slash / for fractions. You can use the keyboard parentheses (), but the parentheses from buttons are better because they expand with the content.

Constants

Constants

pi.png

Number pi

The ratio of a circumference to its diameter

normalπ3.1416

π

e.png

Number e

f=ex is the only function such that f'=f and f(0)=1.

e2.7183

e

i.png

Imaginary unit

A number defined to satisfy ii=1

i

j.png

Imaginary unit

A number defined to satisfy jj=1

infinity.png

Infinity

Use it to calculate limits.

You must use the buttons for e and i. Keyboard e and i are just variables; they aren't the standard constants.

The four basic operations

Basic operations

sum.png

Addition

Addition

rest.png

Subtraction

Subtraction

mult.png

Multiplication

Multiplication

div.png

Division

Division

You can use multiple symbols for multiplication: * asterisk, · middle dot, the one in the menu, and also a space. That's it; a space between variables or numbers is an implicit multiplication. The * asterisk is automatically converted to a nicer middle dot ·.

About division, apart from the symbol in the menu, you can also use / slash and, of course, the fraction symbol.

Brackets

Brackets

parenthesis.png

Parentheses

Use them to control the order of the operations.

Brackets

square_brackets.png

Vector

See Linear algebra section.

Vector

curly_brackets.png

List

Some results or parameters are given or requested in this form.

absolut.png

Absolute value

Removes the sign from a number.

Absolute value

norm.png

Norm

Length of a vector.

Norm

Do not use curly or square brackets as parentheses. Use only proper parentheses.

2·}{3+4·][5+6·7+xLaTeX 2\cdot\left\{3+4\cdot\left[5+6\cdot\left(7+x\right)\right]\right\} : error

2·3+4·5+6·7+xLaTeX 2\cdot\left(3+4\cdot\left(5+6\cdot\left(7+x\right)\right)\right) : ok

Bidimensional symbols

Bidimensional symbols

fraction.png

Fraction

Fraction

square_root.png

Square root

Square root

nRoot.png

Root

Root

superscript.png

Power

Power

subscript.png

Element of list

Use it also for a vector, a matrix, an equation, etc.

Subscript

Inequality symbols

Inequality symbols

gt.png

Greater-than sign

Inequality

lt.png

Less-than sign

geq.png

Greater than or equal to

leq.png

Less than or equal to

neq.png

Not equal to

Other symbols

Decimal separator

The dot (.) is for the decimal point, the comma (,) is for lists, and the apostrophe ('' ' '') is for derivation. The decimal point is the dot, but the others don't have that function.

There is no digit grouping symbol, nor are there spaces. Spaces mean implicit multiplication. The head decimal point is not allowed; use leading zero in those cases. The trailing decimal point is allowed.

  • ''3.1416'': OK

  • ''3,1416'': Error

  • ''3'1416'': Error

  • ''1 234 567'': Error

  • ''.12'': Error

  • ''0.12'': OK

  • ''12.0'': OK

  • ''12.'': OK

symbols.decimal_mark.calc.png

Plus Minus

Sometimes we are interested in the result of an expression when we add and subtract the same amount, as when we want to compute the roots of a degree two polynomial. The ±LaTeX \pm symbol allows us such and more things.

  • If, for instance, we want to compute 3±2, we expect {5,1}

  • We can also use it as a unary operator: ±2={2,-2}

Every possible sign will be computed when we use the ±LaTeX \pm symbol. Therefore, if we write n±LaTeX \pm symbols, we will get a list of 2n elements. Some of them may be repeated since it is a list, not a set (for instance, ±0={0,0}).

We can use the ±LaTeX \pm symbol in all the basic operations (plus, minus, product, division, root, power) and some elementary functions (exponential, logarithm, trigonometric and hyperbolic functions and its inverse).

symbols.plus_minus.calc.png
symbols.plus_minus.plotter1.calc.png

Examples

pi.png
symbols.number_pi.calc.png
e.png
symbols.number_e.calc.png
i.png
j.png
symbols.imaginary_unit.calc.png
infinity.png
symbols.infinity.calc.png
sum.png
symbols.addition.calc.png
rest.png
symbols.subtraction.calc.png
mult.png
symbols.multiplication.calc.png
div.png
symbols.division.calc.png
parenthesis.png
symbols.parentheses.calc.png
square_brackets.png
symbols.vector.calc.png
curly_brackets.png
symbols.list.calc.png
absolut.png
symbols.absolute_value.calc.png
symbols.absolute_value.p.calc.png
norm.png
symbols.norm.calc.png
fraction.png
symbols.fraction.calc.png
symbols.fraction.p.calc.png
square_root.png
symbols.square_root.calc.png
symbols.square_root.p.calc.png
nRoot.png
symbols.root.calc.png
superscript.png
symbols.power.calc.png
symbols.power.p.calc.png
subscript.png
symbols.element_of_list.calc.png
lt.png
symbols.less_than_sign.calc.png
symbols.less_than_sign.p.calc.png

Arithmetic

Here you'll find commands concerning integers and the rounding of decimals. You'll also find some divisibility commands, which are shared with Polynomials.

Tip

You can find all the available commands related to arithmetics here.

Integers and rounding

Also, see the Document settings section to see how many decimal places are shown.

Integers and rounding

absolut.png

Absolute value

You can write | (pipe) with the keyboard, too.

Absolute value

floor.png

Floor

Round down to the next smaller integer.

Rounding

ceil.png

Ceiling

Round up to the next greater integer.

cmdlst_arithmetic1_calc.png

Round to nearest integer, and for tie-breaking round half up.

cmdlst_arithmetic2_calc.png

The sign for a number. It can be -1, 0 or 1.

Sign

cmdlst_arithmetic3_calc.png

The greater of two numbers, or a list.

cmdlst_arithmetic4_calc.png

The smaller of two numbers, or a list.

cmdlst_arithmetic5_calc.png

Generate a pseudo-random number between the two given ones (including both). Also, choose randomly from a list.

Pseudorandomness

Divisibility

Divisibility

cmdlst_symbols1_calc.png

The numerator of a fraction.

Fraction

cmdlst_symbols2_calc.png

The denominator of a fraction.

cmdlst_symbols3_calc.png

The quotient of the integer division of the first number (dividend) by the second (divisor).

Quotient

cmdlst_symbols4_calc.png

The remainder of the integer division of the first number (dividend) by the second (divisor); also called modulus in many textbooks.

Remainder

cmdlst_symbols5_calc.png

Greatest common divisor.

gcd

cmdlst_symbols6_calc.png

Least common multiple.

lcm

cmdlst_symbols7_calc.png

Prime factorization of an integer.

Factorization

cmdlst_symbols8_calc.png

Tests to determine whether a number is prime. This is a predicate: a command that returns only true or false.

Prime number

Examples

absolut.png
arithmetic.absolute_value.calc.png
symbols.absolute_value.p.calc.png
floor.png
arithmetic.floor.calc.png
ceil.png
arithmetic.ceiling.calc.png
cmdlst_arithmetic1_calc.png
arithmetic.round.calc.png
cmdlst_arithmetic2_calc.png
arithmetic.sign.calc.png
cmdlst_arithmetic3_calc.png
arithmetic.max.calc.png
cmdlst_arithmetic4_calc.png
arithmetic.min.calc.png
cmdlst_arithmetic5_calc.png
arithmetic.random.calc.png
cmdlst_symbols1_calc.png
arithmetic.numerator.calc.png
cmdlst_symbols2_calc.png
arithmetic.denominator1.calc.png
cmdlst_symbols3_calc.png
arithmetic.quotient.calc.png
cmdlst_symbols4_calc.png
arithmetic.remainder.calc.png
cmdlst_symbols5_calc.png
arithmetic.gcd.calc.png
cmdlst_symbols6_calc.png
arithmetic.lcm.calc.png
cmdlst_symbols7_calc.png
arithmetic.factor.calc.png
cmdlst_symbols8_calc.png
arithmetic.prime_.calc.png

Polynomials

Polynomials are simpler types of functions. However, they're so important that they have their own naming system. Because you can divide polynomials, they share divisibility commands with the Arithmetic section.

Here you'll also find commands for complex numbers. Complex numbers were invented as a way to solve all the polynomials.

Tip

You can find all the available commands related to polynomials here.Expressions and polynomials

Polynomials

Polynomials

cmdlst_polynomials1_calc.png

The degree of a polynomial

Polynomial

cmdlst_polynomials2_calc.png

How many terms does a polynomial has.

cmdlst_polynomials3_calc.png

This is one term from a polynomial. The term number is the second parameter. The terms are ordered by descending grades. Therefore, term number 1 is always the leading term.

cmdlst_polynomials4_calc.png

The content of a polynomial. That is, gcd of their coefficients.

cmdlst_polynomials5_calc.png

Rearrange a polynomial with multiple variables arranged around the variable in the second parameter.

cmdlst_polynomials6_calc.png

Finds the roots of a polynomial or, in other words, the values of x that make it 0.

  • The command roots(p) does the same as solve(p=0) or apply the Calc action to p=0, but the results are shown in different forms. See the example.

  • You can also find roots in the Complex field if you use as a second parameter the C from the Logic and sets section. See the example.

Divisibility

Divisibility

cmdlst_divisibility1_calc.png

The numerator of a rational fraction

Rational fraction

cmdlst_divisibility2_calc.png

The denominator of a rational fraction

cmdlst_divisibility3_calc.png

The quotient of the division of the first polynomial (dividend) by the second (divisor)

Polynomial

cmdlst_divisibility4_calc.png

The remainder of the division of the first polynomial (dividend) by the second (divisor)

cmdlst_divisibility5_calc.png

The greatest common divisor

cmdlst_divisibility6_calc.png

The least common multiple

cmdlst_divisibility7_calc.png

Factorization in irreducible polynomials

cmdlst_divisibility8_calc.png

This tests whether a polynomial is irreducible. This is a predicate: a command that returns only true or false.

Complex numbers

Complex numbers

i.png

Imaginary unit

i

cmdlst_complex1_calc.png

The real part of a complex number.

Complex number

cmdlst_complex2_calc.png

The imaginary part of a complex number, which is a real number.

cmdlst_complex3_calc.png

The modulus of a complex number.

cmdlst_complex4_calc.png

The argument of a complex number, in the range (-π,+π].

cmdlst_complex5_calc.png

This converts a complex number from binomial form to polar form and the other way around(!). The polar form is a list formatted as {norm, argument}.

cmdlst_complex6_calc.png

This is the conjugate of a complex number. Shift the sign of the imaginary part.

Examples

cmdlst_polynomials1_calc.png
polynomials.degree.calc.png
cmdlst_polynomials2_calc.png
polynomials.n_terms.calc.png
cmdlst_polynomials3_calc.png
polynomials.term.calc.png
cmdlst_polynomials4_calc.png
polynomials.content.calc.png
cmdlst_polynomials5_calc.png
polynomials.collect.calc.png
cmdlst_polynomials6_calc.png
polynomials.roots.calc.png
cmdlst_divisibility1_calc.png
polynomials.numerator.calc.png
cmdlst_divisibility2_calc.png
polynomials.denominator.calc.png
cmdlst_divisibility3_calc.png
polynomials.quotient.calc.png
cmdlst_divisibility4_calc.png
polynomials.remainder.calc.png
cmdlst_divisibility5_calc.png
polynomials.gcd.calc.png
cmdlst_divisibility6_calc.png
polynomials.lcm.calc.png
cmdlst_divisibility7_calc.png
polynomials.factor.calc.png
cmdlst_divisibility8_calc.png
polynomials.irreducible_.calc.png

Complex numbers

polynomials.complex_numbers.calc.png
cmdlst_complex1_calc.png
polynomials.real_part.calc.png
cmdlst_complex2_calc.png
polynomials.imaginary_part.calc.png
cmdlst_complex3_calc.png
polynomials.norm.calc.png
cmdlst_complex4_calc.png
polynomials.argument.calc.png
cmdlst_complex5_calc.png
polynomials.polar.calc.png
cmdlst_arithmetic5_calc.png
polynomials.conjugate.calc.png

Statistics

Tip

You can find all the available commands related to statistics here.Statistics

Sets of data

Data sets must be entered as a comma-separated list, being enclosed by curly brackets {}.

Sets of data

curly_brackets.png

List

Single set

These commands summarize a set of data. Somehow, they're able to measure its centre or its variability. Because there are multiple definitions for that, there are also multiple measures.

Description of a single sample

cmdlst_set1_calc.png

Mean, arithmetic mean, average.

Mean

cmdlst_set2_calc.png

This is used to summarize measures with different units (length, cost, weight,...) of the same object. It has no sense alone, but it is helpful for comparisons among multiple objects.

cmdlst_set3_calc.png

This is used for ratios and rates, as in the context of speed.

cmdlst_set4_calc.png

A measure of variability that is convenient for calculations

Variance

cmdlst_set5_calc.png

A measure of variability that has the same physical units of the data

Standard deviation

cmdlst_set6_calc.png

A central measure, alternative to mean, is more robust, meaning it isn't affected by extreme data, generally known as outliers.

Median

cmdlst_set7_calc.png

These values divide the data once ordered into four groups of the same size. They're used to measure variability. See the formula reference section for details.

Quartile

cmdlst_set8_calc.png

Most frequent value in data. It can be a set if there are ties.

Mode

Two sets

These commands measure the relationship between data pairs.

  • The data set must be entered as a list of pairs. The list must be enclosed by curly brackets {}. The couples must be surrounded by regular parentheses (). Additionally, you can plot these paired data sets.

Relationship between two sets of paired data

cmdlst_sets1_calc.png

This is the base for the correlation coefficient. It has the same sign.

cmdlst_sets2_calc.png

Pearson correlation coefficient. It determines whether there is a linear relationship between the paired data.

Correlation

cmdlst_sets3_calc.png

It gives the line equation that better fits the cloud of data.

Finds the best y=a+bxLaTeX y=a+bx.

Regression line

cmdlst_sets4_calc.png

It fits the data to a power function.

It finds the best y=axbLaTeX y=ax^b.

Nonlinear regression

cmdlst_sets5_calc.png

It fits the data to an exponential function.

It finds the best y=anormalebxLaTeX y=a\mathrm e^{bx}.

cmdlst_sets6_calc.png

It fits the data to a logarithmic function.

It finds the best y=a+ln(bx)LaTeX y=a+\ln(bx).

Formula reference

Formula reference

cmdlst_formula1_calc.png

1niXiLaTeX \frac1n\sum_iX_i

cmdlst_formula2_calc.png

iXinLaTeX \sqrt[n]{\prod_iX_i}

cmdlst_formula3_calc.png

ntruei1XiLaTeX \frac n{\displaystyle\sum_i\frac1{X_i}}

cmdlst_formula4_calc.png

1n-1i(Xi-mean(X))2LaTeX \frac1{n-1}\sum_i(X_i-\text{mean}(X))^2

cmdlst_formula5_calc.png

variance(X)LaTeX \sqrt{\text{variance}(X)}

cmdlst_formula6_calc.png

{left centerXkn=2k-1Xk+Xk+12n=2k

cmdlst_formula7_calc.png

leftquartile0,X=X1quartile1,X={left centermedian}{X1,,Xkn=2k-1median}{X1,,Xkn=2kquartile2,X=medianXquartile3,X={left centermedian}{Xk,,Xnn=2k-1median}{Xk+1,,Xnn=2kquartile4,X=Xn

cmdlst_formula8_calc.png

1n-1i(Xi-mean(X))(Yi-mean(Y))LaTeX \frac1{n-1}\sum_i(X_i-\text{mean}(X))(Y_i-\text{mean}(Y))

cmdlst_formula9_calc.png

covariance(X,Y)standard_deviation(X)·standard_deviation(Y)LaTeX \frac{covariance(X,Y)}{standard\_deviation(X)\cdot standard\_deviation(Y)}

cmdlst_formula10_calc.png

y-mean(Y)standard_deviation(Y)=correlation(XY)x-mean(X)standard_deviation(X)LaTeX \frac{y-mean(Y)}{standard\_deviation(Y)}=correlation(XY)\frac{x-mean(X)}{standard\_deviation(X)}

Probability distributions

It is also possible to use the most common probability distributions. Currently, the following ones are available.

Probability distributions

cmdlst_prob1_calc.png

All intervals of the same length on the distribution's support are equally probable in the uniform distribution.

Uniform variable

cmdlst_prob2_calc.png

The normal distribution is determined by its mean μLaTeX \mu and standard deviation σLaTeX \sigma. It is widely used in natural science, among other fields.

Normal variable

cmdlst_prob3_calc.png

The exponential distribution is the probability distribution that describes the time between events in a Poisson point process, i.e., a process in which events occur continuously and independently at a constant average rate.

Exponential variable

cmdlst_prob4_calc.png

The χ2LaTeX \chi^2 distribution with kLaTeX k degrees of freedom is the distribution of a sum of the squares of kLaTeX k independent standard normal random variables.

Chi-squared variable

cmdlst_prob5_calc.png

Student's tLaTeX t-distribution arises when estimating the mean of a normally distributed population in situations where the sample size is small, and population standard deviation is unknown.

Student t-variable

cmdlst_prob6_calc.png

The Bernoulli distribution is the probability distribution of a random variable which takes the value 1LaTeX 1 with probability pLaTeX p and the value 0 with probability q=1-pLaTeX q=1-p.

Bernoulli variable

cmdlst_prob7_calc.png

The binomial distribution with parameters nLaTeX n and pLaTeX p is the discrete probability distribution of the number of successes in a sequence of nLaTeX n independent experiments, each asking a yes-no question, i.e. each ruled by the same Bernoulli distribution.

Binomial variable

cmdlst_prob8_calc.png

The geometric distribution with parameter pLaTeX p is the discrete probability distribution of the number of failures before the first success. A Bernoulli variable rules each try with the parameter pLaTeX p.

Geometric variable

cmdlst_prob9_calc.png

The Poisson distribution is a discrete probability distribution that expresses the probability of a given number of events occurring in a fixed interval of time or space if these events occur with a known constant rate and independently of the time since the last event.

Poisson variable

cmdlst_prob10_calc.png

The FLaTeX F-distribution is a continuous probability distribution that frequently arises as to the null distribution of a test statistic, most notably in the analysis of variance (ANOVA), e.g., FLaTeX F-test.

F variable

Moreover, we can get a random number following such distributions, obtain its distribution and density function and find the quantile of given probability.

Probability functions

cmdlst_prob11_calc.png

It retrieves a random number following a given distribution.

cmdlst_prob12_calc.png

Distribution function of a random variable at a given point. In some cases, the analytical expression is given. distribution(X,x)=FX(x)=P(Xx)=-xfX(t)dtLaTeX distribution(X,x)=F_X(x)=P(X\leq x)=\int_{-\infty}^x{f_X(t)\;}dt, cumulative distribution function (CDF)

cmdlst_prob13_calc.png

Density function of a random variable at a given point. In some cases, the analytical expression is given. density(X,x)=fX(x)=ddxFX(x)LaTeX density(X,x)=f_X(x)=\frac d{dx}F_X(x), probability density function (PDF).

cmdlst_prob14_calc.png

Quantile function of a random variable for a given probability. quantile(X,p)=xdistribution(X,x)=p, inverse function of CDF.

Statistical data representation

cmdlst_data1_calc.png

Histograms are often used to represent continuous data visually.

cmdlst_data2_calc.png

As opposed to histograms, bar charts are helpful for displaying discrete data, as well as categorical data.

cmdlst_data3_calc.png

Pie charts are another standard tool for categorical data when we want to show the proportion that each category occupies out of the whole.

cmdlst_data4_calc.png

Boxplots are very useful for a concise representation of a data set. In one boxplot, we see the median, the interquartile range (IQR), as well, as outliers.

Examples

cmdlst_set1_calc.png
statistics.mean.calc.png
cmdlst_set2_calc.png
statistics.geometric_mean.calc.png
cmdlst_set3_calc.png
statistics.harmonic_mean.calc.png
cmdlst_set4_calc.png
statistics.variance.calc.png
cmdlst_set5_calc.png
statistics.standard_deviation.calc.png
cmdlst_set6_calc.png
statistics.median.calc.png
cmdlst_set7_calc.png
statistics.quartile.calc.png
cmdlst_set8_calc.png
statistics.mode.calc.png
cmdlst_sets1_calc.png
statistics.covariance.calc.png
cmdlst_sets2_calc.png
statistics.correlation.calc.png
statistics.correlation.p.calc.png
cmdlst_sets3_calc.png
statistics.regression_line.calc.png
statistics.regression_line.p.calc.png
cmdlst_sets4_calc.png
statistics.regression_power.calc.png
statistics.regression_power.p.calc.png
cmdlst_sets5_calc.png
statistics.regression_exponential.calc.png
statistics.regression_exponential.p.calc.png
cmdlst_sets6_calc.png
statistics.regression_logarithm.calc.png
statistics.regression_logarithm.p.calc.png
cmdlst_prob1_calc.png
statistics.uniform_variable.calc.png
statistics.uniform_variable.p.calc.png
cmdlst_prob2_calc.png
statistics.normal_variable.calc.png
statistics.normal_variable.p.calc.png
cmdlst_prob3_calc.png
statistics.exponential_variable.calc.png
statistics.exponential_variable.p.calc.png
cmdlst_prob4_calc.png
statistics.chi_squared_variable.calc.png
statistics.chi_squared_variable.p.calc.png
cmdlst_prob5_calc.png
statistics.student_t_variable.calc.png
statistics.student_t_variable.p.calc.png
cmdlst_prob6_calc.png
statistics.bernoulli_variable.calc.png
statistics.bernoulli_variable.p.calc.png
cmdlst_prob7_calc.png
statistics.binomial_variable.calc.png
statistics.binomial_variable.p.calc.png
cmdlst_prob8_calc.png
statistics.geometric_variable.calc.png
statistics.geometric_variable.p.calc.png
cmdlst_prob9_calc.png
statistics.poisson_variable.calc.png
statistics.poisson_variable.p.calc.png
cmdlst_prob10_calc.png
statistics.f_variable.calc.png
statistics.f_variable.p.calc.png
cmdlst_data1_calc.png
graphics.histogram.calc.png
graphics.histogram.plotter1.calc.png
graphics.histogram.plotter2.calc.png
cmdlst_data2_calc.png
graphics.bar_chart.calc.png
graphics.bar_chart.plotter1.calc.png
graphics.bar_chart.plotter2.calc.png
cmdlst_data3_calc.png
graphics.pie_chart.calc.png
graphics.pie_chart.plotter1.calc.png
graphics.pie_chart.plotter2.calc.png
cmdlst_data4_calc.png
graphics.boxplot.calc.png
graphics.boxplot.plotter1.calc.png
graphics.boxplot.plotter2.calc.png

Functions

The most common functions are the polynomial and rational ones, both of which are called algebraic functions. They're covered in the Polynomials section. This section is about other groups of so-called transcendental functions. Their exact values can't be calculated with basic arithmetic alone. You can calculate approximations, but it's impractical to do so by hand. It's better to use an electronic calculator or a table or book of values as was done in the old days.

Tip

You can find all the available commands related to the available functions here.Functions

Trigonometric functions

Trigonometric functions started in the basic geometry of triangles, but now they comprise a complex field that's a central subject of calculus.

Trigonometric functions have two modes of work: in degrees and in radians. See the Document settings section.

Trigonometric functions

pi.png

Number pi This is useful when working with radians. normalπ3.1416LaTeX \mathrm\pi\approx3.1416

π

angle_degree.png

Angle degree

Degree

Direct

cmdlst_trigonometric1_calc.png

Sine, related to the side opposite the angle

Trigonometric function

cmdlst_trigonometric2_calc.png

Cosine, related to the side adjacent to the angle

cmdlst_trigonometric3_calc.png

Tangent, sin/cos

Reciprocal

cmdlst_trigonometric4_calc.png

Cosecant, 1/sin

Trigonometric function

cmdlst_trigonometric5_calc.png

Secant, 1/cos

cmdlst_trigonometric6_calc.png

Cotangent, 1/tan

Inverse

cmdlst_trigonometric7_calc.png

This is one of the many angles whose sine is the given number. It's the one in [-π/2,π/2].

Trigonometric function

cmdlst_trigonometric8_calc.png

This is one of the many angles whose cosine is the given number. It's the one in [0,π].

cmdlst_trigonometric9_calc.png

This is one of the many angles whose tangent is the given number. It's the one in (-π/2,π/2).

You can use the Simplify action to force non-trivial simplifications over trigonometric expressions. Moreover, the Verify action can test for trigonometric identities.

Logarithms and exponentials

Exponential and logarithmic functions are essential in calculus. The logarithm is used for physical measures, such as the units pH in chemistry and dB in acoustic physics.

Logarithms and exponential

e.png

Number e This is the basis of the Napierian logarithm. e2.7183LaTeX e\approx2.7183

e

log.png

Logarithm with base

Logarithm

cmdlst_logexp1_calc.png

Exponential, e powered to the given number.

Exponentiation

cmdlst_logexp2_calc.png

Natural or Napierian logarithm

Logarithm

cmdlst_logexp3_calc.png

Logarithm

You must enter e with the button. You can't simply type e with the keyboard because then it's just a variable called e but not the number.

The logarithm base can be set as a subindex of the function log().

If no base is set, just log() means the decimal logarithm or, in other words, the base 10 logarithm.

Also, ln() means the natural logarithm, which is the base e logarithm.

You can use the Simplify action to force non-trivial simplifications over logarithmic and exponential expressions. Also, the Verify action can test for identities.

Hyperbolic functions

Hyperbolic functions

cmdlst.functions_2.calc.png

sinh(x)=ex-e-x2LaTeX \sinh(x)=\frac{e^x-e^{-x}}2

Hyperbolic function

cmdlst.functions_2.calc.png

cosh(x)=ex+e-x2LaTeX \cosh(x)=\frac{e^x+e^{-x}}2

cmdlst.functions_2.calc.png

tanh(x)=sinh(x)cosh(x)LaTeX \tanh(x)=\frac{\sinh(x)}{\cosh(x)}

Examples

pi.png
angle_degree.png
functions.deg.calc.png

Trigonometric functions

functions.trig.calc.png
functions.trig.p.calc.png
cmdlst_trigonometric1_calc.png
functions.sin.calc.png
cmdlst_trigonometric2_calc.png
functions.cos.calc.png
cmdlst_trigonometric3_calc.png
functions.tan.calc.png

Trigonometric reciprocal functions

functions.trigrec.calc.png
functions.trigrec.p.calc.png
cmdlst_trigonometric4_calc.png
functions.csc.calc.png
cmdlst_trigonometric5_calc.png
functions.sec.calc.png
cmdlst_trigonometric6_calc.png
functions.cot.calc.png

Trigonometric inverse functions

functions.triginv.calc.png
functions.triginv.p.calc.png
cmdlst_trigonometric7_calc.png
functions.arcsin.calc.png
cmdlst_trigonometric8_calc.png
functions.arccos.calc.png
cmdlst_trigonometric9_calc.png
functions.arctan.calc.png

Logarithmic and exponential functions

functions.logexp.calc.png
functions.logexp.p.calc.png
cmdlst_logexp1_calc.png
functions.exp.calc.png
cmdlst_logexp2_calc.png
functions.ln.calc.png
cmdlst_logexp3_calc.png
functions.log.calc.png

Hyperbolic functions

functions.hyper.calc.png
functions.hyper.p.calc.png
cmdlst_hyperbolic1_calc.png
functions.sinh.calc.png
cmdlst_hyperbolic2_calc.png
functions.cosh.calc.png
cmdlst_hyperbolic3_calc.png
functions.tanh.calc.png

Calculus

Tip

You can find all the available commands related to calculus here.Analysis

Here you'll find lots of buttons and commands that are relevant to calculus, functions and successions.

Calculus actions

derivative.png

Derive

Derivative

integral.png

Integrate

Integral

A derivation or integration will use the first alphabetical variable by default. You can change that by configuring these actions, clicking on the action icon in the line.

Calculus buttons

derive.png

Derivative You can also use the apostrophe (') from the keyboard.

Derivative

int.png

An integral with differential.

Integral

intdef.png

A definite integral with differential. Be aware that the sign of the function matters. The definite integral isn't always the area.

lim.png

Limit You can use infinity here.

Limit

limright.png

Limit right.

Limit of a function

limleft.png

Limit left.

infinity.png

To infinity . . . and beyond!.

piecewise.png

Piece-wise function.

Piecewise function

functionapp.png

Function application.

restrdomain.png

Expression with a restricted domain.

Restriction

sumdef.png

Summation with under-and-over scripts.

Sum

sumset.png

Summation with under scripts.

proddef.png

The product with under-and-over scripts.

Product

prodset.png

The product with under scripts.

Function application must be used only when the function is not yet defined (such as in ODEs). Do not use it to define or to use a function. Instead, use simple parentheses. See the example below.

Calculus commands

cmdlst_calculus1_calc.png

Domain of a function.

Function

cmdlst_calculus2_calc.png

Taylor's polynomial.

Taylor's polynomial

Ordinary Differential Equations

cmdlst_calculus3_calc.png

This fills the plane with vectors defined by a function. Use it to visualize gradients, forces, derivatives in a phase plane, etc.

Vector field

cmdlst_calculus4_calc.png

This fills the plane with curves that follow the given vector field, i.e., curves as the solution to the ODE associated with a vector field. Use it to get an overview of the stability of the field.

Integral curve

cmdlst_calculus5_calc.png

This draws a particular integral curve, which begins at a given point.

Examples

derivative.png
derive.png
calculus.derive.calc.png
calculus.derive.p.calc.png
integral.png
int.png
calculus.integrate.calc.png
intdef.png
calculus.definite_integral_with_differential.calc.png
calculus.definite_integral_with_differential.p.calc.png
lim.png
calculus.limit.calc.png
calculus.limit.p.calc.png
limright.png
limleft.png
calculus.limit_left.calc.png
calculus.limit_left.p.calc.png
infinity.png
calculus.infinity.calc.png
piecewise.png
calculus.piecewise_function.calc.png
calculus.piecewise_function.p.calc.png
functionapp.png
calculus.function_application.calc.png
restrdomain.png
calculus.domain_restriction.calc.png
calculus.domain_restriction.p.calc.png
sumdef.png
sumset.png
calculus.summation_with_under_and_over_scripts.calc.png
proddef.png
prodset.png
calculus.product_with_under_and_over_scripts.calc.png
cmdlst_calculus1_calc.png
calculus.domain.calc.png
cmdlst_calculus2_calc.png
calculus.taylor.calc.png
calculus.taylor.p.calc.png
cmdlst_calculus3_calc.png
cmdlst_calculus4_calc.png
cmdlst_calculus5_calc.png
calculus.vector_field.calc.png
calculus.vector_field.p.calc.png

Linear algebra

Tip

You can find all the available commands related to linear algebra here.Linear algebra

Find here operations of vectors and matrices. Vectors, which use brackets, are written horizontally. You can write them with the button of the men, or directly with the keyboard.

Matrices are best written with the button of the menu. However, they can also be written with the keyboard as a vector of multiple same-dimension vectors, as in many programming languages. Once a matrix is created, you can still modify its layout. You can, for example, insert or remove columns and rows. There are buttons for that in the menu. Usually, they're disabled, but they become enabled when the cursor enters a matrix.

Vectors are automatically seen as matrices by some commands. You needn't be concerned about the conversion. The usual operations are aware of vectors and matrices. For example, the common product symbol means different things when used between a scalar and a vector, two vectors, a vector and a matrix, or two matrices.

Linear algebra

Makers

vector.png

Vector

Vector

matrix.png

Matrix

Matrix

determinant.png

Determinant

Determinant

Buttons for vectors

scalar.png

Scalar product, dot product

Dot product

vector_product.png

Vector product, cross product

Cross product

norm.png

Norm

Norm

subscript.png

Element of vector

Buttons about matrices

absolut.png

Determinant

Determinant

invert.png

Inverse

Matrix

transpose.png

Transpose

Transpose

identity.png

Identity matrix

Matrix

double_subscript.png

Element of matrix

Commands

cmdlst_algebra1_calc.png

Dimension of a vector

Vector

cmdlst_algebra2_calc.png

Dimensions of a matrix; first files, then rows

Matrix

cmdlst_algebra3_calc.png

Rank of a matrix; max number of linearly independent rows or columns

Rank

cmdlst_algebra4_calc.png

A matrix whose rows are a base of the kernel

Kernel

cmdlst_algebra5_calc.png

A matrix whose rows are a base of the image

Image

cmdlst_algebra6_calc.png

A list of eigenvalues, repeated as many times as their multiplicity

Eigenvalues

cmdlst_algebra7_calc.png

A matrix whose rows are eigenvectors, ordered matching the eigenvalues result list

Eigenvectors

cmdlst_algebra8_calc.png

The Jordan normal form of the matrix, if it exists. It gives the lower triangular form but not the upper.

Jordan normal form

cmdlst_algebra9_calc.png

Angle between two vectors.

  • For the kernel(), image() and eigenvectors() commands, the result is a matrix whose columns are the vectors that form a base. Note that, because there are always many bases, there are many other correct results. You can get a particular vector from the result R using RT1, RT2, RT3,...

Matrix layout modifiers

prepend_column.png

Insert column at left

append_column.png

Insert column at right

remove_column.png

Remove column

prepend_row.png

Insert row above

append_row.png

Insert row below

remove_row.png

Remove row

Examples

vector.png
linear_algebra.vector.calc.png
matrix.png
linear_algebra.matrix.calc.png
determinant.png
linear_algebra.determinant.calc.png
scalar.png
linear_algebra.scalar_product.calc.png
vector_product.png
linear_algebra.vector_product.calc.png
norm.png
linear_algebra.norm.calc.png
subscript.png
linear_algebra.element_of_vector.calc.png
invert.png
linear_algebra.inverse.calc.png
transpose.png
linear_algebra.transpose.calc.png
identity.png
linear_algebra.identity_matrix.calc.png
double_subscript.png
linear_algebra.element_of_matrix.calc.png
cmdlst_algebra1_calc.png
linear_algebra.length.calc.png
cmdlst_algebra2_calc.png
linear_algebra.dimensions.calc.png
cmdlst_algebra3_calc.png
linear_algebra.rank.calc.png
cmdlst_algebra4_calc.png
linear_algebra.kernel.calc.png
cmdlst_algebra5_calc.png
linear_algebra.image.calc.png
cmdlst_algebra6_calc.png
cmdlst_algebra7_calc.png
linear_algebra.eigenvalues.calc.png
cmdlst_algebra8_calc.png
linear_algebra.jordan.calc.png
cmdlst_algebra9_calc.png
linear_algebra.angle.calc.png

Combinatorics

Tip

You can find all the available commands related to combinatorics here.Combinatorics and progressions

Here you'll find the elementary combinatorial functions. You can calculate their values. You can also apply these functions to a list and see the entire collection. Please be careful, though. The results can easily be too big.

Combinatorics

var.png

Variations or k-permutations of n

Variations

perm.png

Permutations

Permutation

comb.png

Combinations

Combination

varrep.png

Variations with repetition or n-tuples of m-sets

Variations with repetition

permrep.png

Permutations with repetition

Permutation

combrep.png

Combinations with repetition

Combination

bin.png

Binomial coefficient

Binomial coefficient

fact.png

Factorial You can also write ! with the keyboard.

Factorial

Examples

var.png
combinatorics.variations.calc.png
perm.png
combinatorics.permutations.calc.png
comb.png
combinatorics.combinations.calc.png
varrep.png
combinatorics.variations_with_repetition.calc.png
permrep.png
combinatorics.permutations_with_repetition.calc.png
combrep.png
combinatorics.combinations_with_repetition.calc.png
bin.png
combinatorics.binomial_coefficient.calc.png
fact.png
combinatorics.factorial.calc.png

Logic and sets

You can verify whether a statement is true or false. Use it to test identities, for example. There are logical (Boolean) operators, which you can use to combine statements. There are logical (Boolean) operators, which you can use to combine statements.

You can make statements about sets. There are two types of them:

  • finite sets: a list of elements inside curly brackets, such as {1,2,3}.

  • standard number sets: represented by standard symbols, for example, R.

You can make operations with the finite sets, but not with the others. You can also work with intervals and do operations with them

Intervals

cmdlst_logic1_calc.png

The interval (a,b)LaTeX (a,b), that is all the numbers xLaTeX x between aLaTeX a and bLaTeX b: a<x<b

cmdlst_logic2_calc.png

The interval (a,b]LaTeX (a,b\rbrack, that is all the numbers xLaTeX x between aLaTeX a and bLaTeX b including bLaTeX b: a<xb

cmdlst_logic3_calc.png

The interval [a,b)LaTeX \lbrack a,b), that is all the numbers xLaTeX x between aLaTeX a and bLaTeX b including aLaTeX a: ax<b

cmdlst_logic4_calc.png

The interval [a,b]LaTeX \lbrack a,b\rbrack, that is all the numbers xLaTeX x between aLaTeX a and bLaTeX b including both aLaTeX a and bLaTeX b: axbLaTeX a\leq x\leq b

Logic and sets

Actions

verify.png

Verify

Proposition

Buttons about logic

equal.png

Equal to

Inequality

neq.png

Not equal to

lt.png

Less-than sign

gt.png

Greater-than sign

leq.png

Less than or equal to

geq.png

Greater than or equal to

and.png

Logical and

and

or.png

Logical or

or

Buttons about sets

curly_brackets.png

List

in.png

Element of

Set

ni.png

Contains as member

cup.png

Union

cap.png

Intersection

set_minus.png

Set minus

naturals.png

Natural numbers

Number

integers.png

Integer numbers

rationals.png

Rational numbers

reals.png

Real numbers

complexes.png

Complex numbers

Examples

verify.png
logic_and_sets.verify.calc.png
equal.png
neq.png
lt.png
gt.png
leq.png
geq.png
logic_and_sets.not_equal_to.calc.png
and.png
or.png
logic_and_sets.logical_and.calc.png
curly_brackets.png
in.png
ni.png
cup.png
cap.png
set_minus.png
logic_and_sets.list.calc.png
naturals.png
integers.png
rationals.png
reals.png
complexes.png
logic_and_sets.real_numbers.calc.png
cmdlst_logic1_calc.png
logic_and_sets.interval_open_open.calc.png
cmdlst_logic2_calc.png
logic_and_sets.interval_open_close.calc.png
cmdlst_logic3_calc.png
logic_and_sets.interval_close_open.calc.png
cmdlst_logic4_calc.png
logic_and_sets.interval_close_close.calc.png

Solve

Tip

You can find all the available commands related to equations, inequations and systems of equations and inequations here.Equations, inequations, systems of equations and Ordinary Differential Equations

This section contains commands to find solutions to equations, inequalities and their corresponding systems. You can perform the Calc action over equations, inequalities and systems of them, and they'll be solved by default. Alternatively, you can use the solve command. The results are the same, but they have different forms.

There isn't a solution for every equation in the real numbers. You can also use solve complex numbers. Not all equations have algorithms to find the answers. If the system can't see all the exact solutions, you can try numerical_solve to find one approximate solution. The command numerical_solve doesn't find all solutions. Instead, it finds one each time.

The Calc action first tries the complete solve internally, and if it fails, it uses numerical_solve. We can also store the equation's solutions in a set and then access each answer using the commands you can see in the last example below.

Note

Writing a system of equations is simple: separate each equation by commas; write them inside braces and separate them by commas; or put all of them inside braces, each one in a new line (Shift+Enter).

Solve

cmdlst_solve1_calc.png

Find all solutions: all values that satisfy the equation.

Equation

cmdlst_solve2_calc.png

Find one approximate value that satisfies the equation. An iterative method is used, and you can set the initial value.

Newton's method

cmdlst_solve3_calc.png

Solve inequalities and their corresponding systems.

Inequality

cmdlst_solve4_calc.png

Evaluate the first parameter (expression) by replacing the second (variable) with the third (value) and performing the operations.

Examples

cmdlst_solve1_calc.png
solve.solve.calc.png
cmdlst_solve2_calc.png
solve.numerical_solve.calc.png
cmdlst_solve3_calc.png
solve.solve_inequation.calc.png
cmdlst_solve4_calc.png
solve.substitute.calc.png

Greek

It's common to use Greek letters in formulas, and this section contains them all. See Greek alphabet for background information.

You can use Greek letters for the names of the variables. You could even use Chinese, Japanese or Russian letters, for example. You'd need an appropriate keyboard for that, or you could copy and paste the symbols from a web page, for example. See Unicode for background information.

  • Do not use this π for 3.1416, use the one in the Symbols section. The π here is only text, so it has no value.

Lowercase

alpha.png

Alpha

beta.png

Beta

gamma.png

Gamma

delta.png

Delta

epsilon.png

Epsilon

zeta.png

Zeta

eta.png

Eta

theta.png

Theta

iota.png

Iota

kappa.png

Kappa

lambda.png

Lambda

mu.png

Mu

nu.png

Nu

xi.png

Xi

omicron.png

Omicron

pi2.png

Pi

rho.png

Rho

fsigma.png

Final sigma

sigma.png

Sigma

tau.png

Tau

upsilon.png

Upsilon

phi.png

Phi

chi.png

Chi

psi.png

Psi

omega.png

Omega

Uppercase

calpha.png

Capital alpha

cbeta.png

Capital beta

cgamma.png

Capital gamma

cdelta.png

Capital delta

cepsilon.png

Capital epsilon

czeta.png

Capital zeta

ceta.png

Capital eta

ctheta.png

Capital theta

ciota.png

Capital iota

ckappa.png

Capital kappa

clambda.png

Capital lambda

cmu.png

Capital mu

cnu.png

Capital nu

cxi.png

Capital xi

comicron.png

Capital omicron

cpi.png

Capital pi

crho.png

Capital rho

csigma.png

Capital sigma

ctau.png

Capital tau

cupsilon.png

Capital upsilon

cphi.png

Capital phi

cchi.png

Capital chi

cpsi.png

Capital psi

comega.png

Capital omega

Examples

Greek

greek.greek.calc.png

Units of measure

Tip

You can find all the available commands related to units of measurement here.Units of measurement

You can do calculations using units. We follow the metric system, also called the International System of Units or SI for short. Find out all the units and metric prefixes supported. See Metric system for background information.

  • You must write the units with the buttons of this section. You can't write them with the keyboard. An m from here is a meter, but an m from the keyboard is just a variable.

  • Usually, a space between symbols means product, but it implies sum between quantities. If you want to multiply quantities, you must write the product symbol in between.

At the top of the section, there is a selector of the SI prefixes for the units below. The result of an operation between quantities has its unit selected automatically. You can force the unit of a quantity by using the Convert command.

You can obtain a quantity by multiplying a number and a unit. Using those commands can split a quantity into its coefficient and unit.

Commands

cmdlst_units1_calc.png

Convert the quantity in the first parameter to the unit of the second parameter. If there is no second parameter, it will be converted to the SI default unit.

cmdlst_units2_calc.png

Coefficient of a quantity.

cmdlst_units3_calc.png

Unit of a quantity.

Units

SI Prefixes

n

nano

0.000 000 001

µ

micro

0.000 001

m

mili

0.001

c

centi

0.01

d

deci

0.1

da

deca

10

h

hecto

100

k

kilo

1000

M

mega

1 000 000

G

giga

1 000 000 000

Units

meter.png

Meter

gram.png

Gram

second.png

Second

ampere.png

Ampere

kelvin.png

Kelvin

mol.png

Mol

candela.png

Candela

angle_degree.png

Angle degree

angle_minute.png

Angle minute

angle_second.png

Angle second

rad.png

Radian

steradiant.png

Steradiant

hour.png

Hour

minute.png

Minute

second.png

Second

liter.png

Liter

newton.png

Newton

hertz.png

Hertz

pascal.png

Pascal

watt.png

Watt

joule.png

Joule

coulomb.png

Coulomb

volt.png

Volt

ohm.png

Ohm

faraday.png

Farad

siemens.png

Siemens

weber.png

Weber

bar.png

Bar

henry.png

Henry

tesla.png

Tesla

lux.png

Lux

lumen.png

Lumen

gray.png

Gray

becquerel.png

Becquerel

sievert.png

Sievert

katal.png

Katal

atmosphere.png

Atmosphere

molar.png

Molar

dalton.png

Dalton

electronvolt.png

Electronvolt

pond.png

Pond

yard.png

Yard

foot.png

Foot

inch.png

Inch

mile.png

Mile

nautical_mile.png

Nautical mile

gallon.png

Gallon

ounce.png

Ounce

pound_mass.png

Pound

fluid_ounce.png

Fluid ounce

pint.png

Pint

percent.png

Percent

permil.png

Permil

Examples

Units of measure

units_of_measure.units_of_measure.calc.png
cmdlst_units1_calc.png
units_of_measure.convert.calc.png
cmdlst_units2_calc.png
units_of_measure.coefficient.calc.png
cmdlst_units3_calc.png
units_of_measure.unit.calc.png

Currencies

Besides units, we can use currencies and do basic arithmetic with them but it is not possible to convert one unit into another. We should use the currency symbol provided in the tab.

Currencies

dollar.png

Dollar

euro.png

Euro

pound.png

Pound

franc.png

Franc

krona.png

Krone

bitcoin.png

Bitcoin

ruble.png

Ruble

rupee.png

Rupee

won.png

Won

yen.png

Yen

Currencies

units_of_measure.currencies.calc.png

Graphs

Tip

You can find all the available commands related to graphics here.Graphics

The Sheet can have an area for plotters on the right. Plotters are containers for graphs of functions. They can be heavily configured. You can see that plotters have background, axis and grid. They also have centre and scale concerning the view. Each plotter has a name on top and a button to configure its properties. You can change the point of view in real-time by dragging the mouse or rolling the mouse wheel over the plotter.

There are bigger versions of plotters, too. Click on the arrow at the bottom-left to see them. In the bigger version, there are sliders to change the point of view. Moreover, the bigger version of the 2-D plotter has a crosshair and shows, at the bottom-right, the coordinates of the selected point. This is useful for obtaining information about the drawn functions.

crosshair.png

You can put things in the plotter by using the Plot action over a formula. If there is no plotter in the sheet, a new one will be created. Otherwise, the graph object will be placed in an existing plotter.

Graph objects can also be heavily configured. Each graph object has label, color and width, and maybe border, interior and transparency. These properties can be configured by clicking the Plot action icon located next to the formula. You can also move one graph object from one plotter to another through the configuration popup next to the Plot icon.

Furthermore, you can create several objects using top-bar actions or drawing by hand through handwritten geometry recognition. You can configure them like you had made it through the sheet. See Graph for background.

Graphs

Actions

draw.png

Plot

draw3d.png

Plot 3-D

Commands

cmdlst_plot1_calc.png

Place the boundaries as parameters, and you'll get a region object that's ready to plot.

2-D

You can plot in the Cartesian plane:

  • functions, of one variable

  • equations, of two variables, that are implicit functions

  • inequations, of two variables, that are regions

  • lists of them

  • regions, defined by command region()

You can also plot elements of ODEs, as explained in the Calculus section.

3-D

In the Cartesian space, you can plot:

  • functions, of two variables

  • linear equations, of three variables, which are planes

  • lists of them

Plotter settings

You can change some plotter settings by clicking on the settings button at the right corner of the plotter top bar. The options you can modify are the following.

Dimensions

calc.plottersettings1.png

Color

calc.plottersettings2.png

Horizontal

calc.plottersettings3.png

Vertical

calc.plottersettings4.png

All these settings can also be changed through the sheet. The attributes() command will allow you to see them and the notation you have to use to modify the default values.

Attributes

graphics.configuration.calc.png

Thus, you will be able to create plotters as the following defining its attributes by hand.

Example

graphics.attributes.calc.png
graphics.attributes.p1.calc.png

Plot settings

It's also possible to change the settings of a particular plot by clicking on the object's graph. You will see a bar below it as the following.

Plot settings

graphics.plotsettings.calc.png

The options you can modify (from left to right) are the following:

  • Fix label: choose whether or not the function's label is fixed.

  • Line width: define the line width.

  • Line style: define the line style (solid, dashes, dots or dots and dashes).

  • Line colour: define the line colour.

  • Delete: erase the plotted object.

Finally, you can also change the location of a particular plot by clicking on the graph icon next to the function which is being represented. A pop-up window as the following will appear on your screen.

Plot location

calc.plotsettings.png

Note

From this moment on, it's possible to download the graphic plotter as a square image in PNG format of the size you desire. Take advantage of this new CalcMe feature to save the generated images directly to your device.

download_graph.png

Graph

An object in CalcMe is plotted in Graph; but Graph is much more than a simpler viewer, we can build segments, vectors, lines, and conic sections. Moreover, handwritten geometry recognition allows us to draw by hand, as we do on paper, and it will translate our drawings to mathematical objects.

overview.gif

To see more details, take a look at its dedicated page.

Example

draw.png
graphics.plot_2d.calc.png
graphics.plot_2d.p1.calc.png
graphics.plot_2d.p2.calc.png
graphics.plot_2d.p3.calc.png
draw3d.png
graphics.plot_3d.calc.png
graphics.plot_3d.p1.calc.png
graphics.plot_3d.p2.calc.png
cmdlst_region1_calc.png
graphics.region.calc.png
graphics.region.p1.calc.png
graphics.region.p2.calc.png
graphics.region.p3.calc.png
graphics.region_2.calc.png
graphics.region_2.p1.calc.png
graphics.region_2.p1.calc.png
graphics.region_2.p2.calc.png

Programming

Tip

You can find all the available commands related to programming methods here.Programming functions

Here you'll find the usual commands for programming. These include conditional statements, loops, begin-end block, local variables and return.

Note

As you may use these commands to generate an algorithm for a WirisQuizzes question, we show how to create them through the sheet and using the code editor. You can see more details about it here.

Range notation

We can create a range of numbers using the syntax: start..end or start..end..step. It is also possible to couple ranges.

CalcMe sheet

CalcMe code editor

programming.range.calc.png
programming.rangeal.calc.png

Concatenation

We can concatenate two strings, lists, or vectors. Moreover, we can add a column or a row to a matrix easily.

CalcMe sheet

CalcMe code editor

programming.concatenation.calc.png
programming.concatenational.calc.png

Conditional statements

Conditional statements

cmdlst.programming_if.calc.png

if statement. If the condition is held, then performs the action inside the block.

cmdlst.programming_else.calc.png

else statement. It should be preceded by an if. If the condition specified in the if statement is not held, then runs the commands inside the else's block.

cmdlst.programming_else_if.calc.png

It should be preceded by an if. If the condition specified in the previous if statement is not held and the current condition is satisfied, then performs the action inside the block.

Loop statements

Loop statements

cmdlst_loops1_calc.png

for statement. Write quickly a loop that needs to be run a specific number of times.

cmdlst_loops2_calc.png

while statement repeats the code block until the condition is not satisfied. Be sure that the condition does not hold in some cases. Otherwise, the code will run infinitely.

cmdlst_loops3_calc.png

repeat statement. While the condition does not hold, duplicate the code block. Again, be sure that the condition is satisfied sometimes.

Begin, local and return

Begin, local and return

cmdlst.programming_begin.calc.png

This block is extremely useful when one defines its own functions. It allows performing different actions inside one block and defining local variables.

cmdlst.programming_return.calc.png

return statement. Returns a value in a user function.

cmdlst.programming_local.calc.png

Allows defining local variables: variables defined just in one code block.

Examples

cmdlst.programming_if.calc.png

CalcMe sheet

CalcMe code editor

programming.if.calc.png
programming.ifal.calc.png
cmdlst.programming_else.calc.png

CalcMe sheet

CalcMe code editor

programming.else.calc.png
programming.elseal.calc.png
cmdlst.programming_else_if.calc.png

CalcMe sheet

CalcMe code editor

programming.else_if.calc.png
programming.else_ifal.calc.png
cmdlst_loops1_calc.png

CalcMe sheet

CalcMe code editor

programming.for.calc.png
programming.foral.calc.png
cmdlst_loops2_calc.png

CalcMe sheet

CalcMe code editor

programming.while.calc.png
programming.whileal.calc.png
cmdlst_loops3_calc.png

CalcMe sheet

CalcMe code editor

programming.repeat.calc.png
programming.repeatal.calc.png
cmdlst.programming_begin.calc.png

CalcMe sheet

CalcMe code editor

programming.begin.calc.png
programming.beginal.calc.png
cmdlst.programming_return.calc.png

CalcMe sheet

CalcMe code editor

programming.return.calc.png
programming.return.plotter0.calc.png
programming.returnal.calc.png
programming.return.plotter0.calc.png
cmdlst.programming_local.calc.png

CalcMe sheet

CalcMe code editor

programming.local.calc.png
programming.localal.calc.png

Format

You can apply some formatting options but only to texts in text lines (created by that Text action).

Options

apply to characters

Bold

Italics

Colour

apply to the whole line

Font family

Font size

Format

format.all.calc.png